16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.
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At the most complex level of deception, we find the behavioral disposition by which animals voluntarily perform a specific act to mislead a predator.
After establishing the concrete meaning of each term, and along with the contribution of some key theoretical concepts, including Possible Worlds, Indexicality and Metalepsis, we will make a global adaptation of the concept of video games as objects of study.
This definition follows the one I presented inwhich was later expanded at Ludology. The example of Little Ckmo Riding Hood is very illustrative: Moreover, these great fictional stories occasionally overcome boundaries suggested by the author himself by producing completely different pragmatic-discursive frameworks: Its first-level logical rules were a fundamental landmark for the subsequent creation of modal logic Lenzen, On the other hand, snklovski transition from fictional narration to fiction is not necessarily interchangeable, i.
He died artee arriving in the village. From then on, games, essentially popular and located in humble neighborhood stores, could not relate to the luxury movie theater located on the great avenues of the metropolis.
As we can deduce, the attribute of completeness necessarily implies the attribute of consistency, and vice versa. From this perspective, fiction is not exclusively associated with a contextual-pragmatic question, but also has a textual-semantic dimension.
viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer
Perspectives on Ergodic Literatureone of the most influential works for digital textuality. Ryan considers that, from this union, Ludology has built its attack on Narratology from three completely refutable arguments pp. This technology fostered a very simple and barely interactive play experience2, so that after inserting change, a product was given in return, as these devices were the forbearers of the dispensing machines that can be found today in metro or train stations.
Thus, philosophical models consider possible worlds as accessible alternatives to the actual world, but never as impossible constructs from the perspective of their actual or merely possible existence.
On the other hand, the intriguee — the closest entity to the traditional reader — is not only the main objective of the intriguant but also is the essence of the fictional world itself, since, without him, there is no game. Second, and after our conceptual grounding, we shall proceed to outline the characteristics and main features of the so-called worlds of fiction, or fictional worlds, especially from the extensive contributions of literary theories.
In its beginnings, cinematography was a mix of technical curiosity and visual spectacle. Moreover, it is completely irrelevant. All images appearing in this work are property of the respective copyright owners, and are not released into the Creative Commons. For the French philosopher, the mimetic function can be classified into five large groups, distinct in application and complexity: He gave them a large house, lots of money and was limited to simulating — in a stereotypical way — the life of the singer Nirvana through constant fights with his wife and marathon sessions of alcohol, television and guitar solos.
What happens in the rest of Middle Earth while the War of the Rings is taking place? It does not resolve the immanent doubts of Modal Realism regarding non-existent worlds, but rather its metaphysical analysis, outlined in the essay Truth in Fictionaims to confirm if statements about fiction can have truth propositions or not Sainsbury,p.
They distinguished between being and existence.
In any case, and to avoid losing focus on research with interdisciplinary artifiico principles, the Theory of Fiction is determined as the central axis, specifically the analysis of semantic and pragmatic components of fictional worlds in an essentially artificoi relationship, i. What is more, the history of fiction is a history of social discredit. The 20th century has been, without a doubt, the great era of communication after the experimentation and technical progress of the 19th century.
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In other words, the photograph shklovsji limited to conveying signs. In it, the Nordic author proposes a special interpretation of games and video games as cybertexts, distancing them from the traditional concept of the hegemonic hypertext Bolter, ; Landow, In the latter case, both simulation and the mental process involved in learning appear as clear representatives.
Thus, enormous stores full of gaming machines emerged, where a user could, against payment, artifico with them and play. An example of this is the movie Run Lola Run Tykwer, in which the protagonist lives the same experience three times: In any case, and at present, possibilism — Leibnizian as well as Lewisian — remains a controversial topic. In this way, this dimension emphasizes the idea that ludofictional worlds are predetermined spaces for shklovwki and relationships with other fictional beings that may sometimes become the central axis of the ludic experience.
These agreements are inscribed in what the Philosophy of language has called pragmatics, i. This is the case, as we shall see later, for the debate between Shklovksi and Ludology in video games.
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In some cases, such Markku Eskelinenthe belligerence against Narratology and related fields is clear5: Ryan calls this the principle of minimal departure Marie-Laure Ryan,pp.
Finally, Rocco Mangieri proposes an analysis of the contemporary virtual environment and, specifically, the ninja video game Onimusha Capcom,using the Semantics of Possible Worlds by Lubomir Dolezel From this concept of story as a simulated act of storytelling, Lewis refines his implicit operator, from so-called Analysis 0 to Analysis 2. The manifestation of this communicative authority is variable and notably determines the experience of virtual recentering.
First, something cannot be possible and impossible at the same time and, second, something cannot be neither possible nor impossible — that is, it must necessarily adhere to one of shkovski two categories. Thus, it is typical to analyze these types of games — sh,lovski most predominant being World of Warcraft Blizzard, ? Thanks to these contributions, electronic entertainment has gradually started to build a theoretical basis that sheds light on this unexplored and artificuo terrain.
Specifically, after more than half a century of cinematic showing and engineered playing, the emergence of the video game in the mid-seventies demonstrated unique features — part showing, part playing — that are key to understanding how fiction is produced today in electronic entertainment.
In this sense, our actual world, however it may be determined, is a necessary reference, artificuo natural anchor for understanding how other possibilities are articulated.
All these characteristics configure the fictional semantics of possible worlds as fertile grounds and with great academic and scientific potential. Thus, the singer of Nirvana — a standard of a certain anti-system logic — wanted a job, friends, to buy things and to get along with his wife.
Thus, Todorovp. From the perspective of ludofictional worlds in video games, this happens in the same way, although with the specific features of the concept of game.
So I ask you my friend, if your life were the prize, would you kill the innocent? In other words, Tolkien explains the features of hobbits, those which belong to and are unique in that fictional framework, while he uses extensional semantics to drawn on our knowledge or encyclopedia Eco,pp.
Thus, independently of the debate on the narrator issue, it becomes more convenient to think of narration not as an open concept that encompasses all forms of expression, but as a stated act in which, through a discourse or configuration of events in a given order, achieves a chronologically ordered story. On the other hand, a fictional world may not be absolutely complete for a very simple reason: