Giuliano-Lagarde Report on the Rome Convention [] OJ C/1. Introduction para 2 and commentary of Arts 3 and 4. Add to My Bookmarks Export citation. Giuliano-Lagarde Report on the Rome Convention [] OJ C/1. Commentary of Art 7. Add to My Bookmarks Export citation. Giuliano-Lagarde Report on. Posts about Giuliano Lagarde Report written by Geert van Calster.

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Ville d’Anvers the Belgian Court of Cassation stated for the first time, oagarde terms clearly suggested by the French judgment of 5 Decemberthat: The parties’ choice must be express or be demonstrated with reasonable certainty by the terms of the contract or the circumstances of the case. Re-examination of the specific conflict rule in the matter of contracts of employment led the Group to make fundamental changes to this Article, which already appeared as Article 5 in the original preliminary draft, and to harmonize its approach with that of the repport Article 5 on consumer contracts.

I appreciate that opinions may differ as to the precise delimitation of the inequalities which directly affect the functioning of the common market and those having only an indirect effect. Lagarrde Iranian Oil Company, the sole arbitrator, Mr Cavin, affirmed that it is the will of the parties that determines the law applicable in matters of contract At all events present-day theory is in entire agreement with the position taken by the case law Under this paragraph the provisions of the Convention do not apply to contracts of insurance covering risks situated in the territories of Member States of the European Economic Community.

The uniform rules also apply if those systems coexist within one State cf. It follows from the foregoing observations that the draft dealt both with the law applicable to contractual obligations and with that applicable to non-contractual obligations.

Given the nature of these provisions and their fundamental diversity, no rule of conflict can lead to a uniform solution.

Giuliano Lagarde Report | gavc law – geert van calster

If, for example, a German makes a contract in response to an advertisement published by a French company in a German publication, the contract is covered by the special rule. Sota y Aznar ; Regazzoni v. Since the former text seemed to some delegations to be lacking in clarity, the Group decided to improve the wording. In certain legal systems, a third party may have acquired rights in consequence of a contract concluded betwen two other persons.

Thus the paragraph 4 presumption rests upon a combination of connecting factors.

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According to the last part of paragraph 2, if the contract prescribes performance by an establishment other than the principal place of business, it is presumed that the contract has the closest connection with the country of that other establishment. The Convention does not apply only in situations involving some form of connection with one or other of the Contracting States.


At the same time it provided solutions relating to the law governing the form of legal transactions and evidence, questions of interpretation of uniform rules and their relationship with other rules of conflict of international origin, to the extent to which these were connected with the subject of the preliminary draft. The Group has specifically avoided a more precise definition of “consumer contract” in order to avoid conflict with the various definitions already given by national legislation.

The present wording of Article 6 speaks of “contract of employment” instead of “employment relationship” as in the original preliminary draft.

Report on the Rome Convention by Professors Mario Giuliano and Paul Lagarde (OJ 1980 No C282/1)

They were discussed at a meeting of the rapporteurs chaired by Mr Jenard on 1 to 4 June Paragraph 2 embodies the principle that a choice of law in a consumer contract cannot deprive the consumer of the protection afforded to him by the law of the country in which he has his habitual residence.

The Group did not fail to take account of their results in its own work. Why exhaust oneself with analysis of the corporate exception, if a different piece of EU law exhaustively regulates the issue?

The wording of Article 7 of the original preliminary draft has been considerably improved in the course of the Group’s re-examination of the text of the convention sincein order to permit a better interpretation in the various situations in which it will have to be applied.

The connection in question must exist between the contract as a whole and the law viuliano a country other than that to which the contract is giupiano. For each category of contract it is the characteristic performance that is in principle the relevant factor in applying the presumption for determining the applicable law, even in situations peculiar to certain contracts, as for example in the contract of guarantee where the characteristic performance is always that of the guarantor, whether in relation to the principal debtor or the creditor.

Thus the uniform rules apply to contracts of insurance covering risks situate outside those territories. Moreover the present wording of paragraph 1 means that the uniform rules are to apply in all cases where the dispute would give rise to a conflict between two or more legal systems. It often happens in contracts for carriage that a person who contracts to carry goods for another does not carry them himself but arranges for a third party to do so.

The first of these, at ais the status or legal capacity of natural persons, subject to Article 11 ; then, at bcontractual obligations relating to wills and succession, to property rights arising out of matrimonial relationships, to rights and duties arising out of family relationships, parentage, marriage or affinity, including maintenance obligations in respect of illegitimate children.


The position as just stated has not been altered substantially either by the French draft law supplementing the Civil Code in respect of private international law or by the Benelux Treaty establishing uniform rules of private international law signed in Brussels on 3 July The Group intended this enumeration to exclude from the scope of the Convention all matters of family law.

It appears that for purposes of the application of this paragraph the places of loading and unloading which enter into consideration are reoprt agreed at the time when the contract is concluded. Bot AG, who opined yesterday at the time of posting, the English version of the Opinion was not yet availablehas considerably slimmed down the list of questions eligible for answer, due to the non- application ratione temporis of secondary Giuliqno law at issue: However, it was not until the next meeting on 20 to 22 October that the government experts were able to give a precise opinion both on the advisability and scope of harmonization and on the working procedure and organization of work.

In the cases referred to under b the contract is more closely connected with the State in which the other contracting party is resident, even if the latter has performed one of the acts described in paragraph 2 advertising, for example in the State in which the consumer is resident.

Ltd 20 Lord Wright indicated that the parties’ choice must be bona fide and legal and could be avoided on the ground of public layarde. The choice of law by the parties will often be express but the Convention recognizes rfport possibility that the Court may, in the light of all the facts, find that the parties have made a real choice of law although this is not expressly stated in the contract.

General rules paragraphs 1 to 4 inclusive. Consequently, the law which was applicable to those contracts before the merger continues to be applicable after the merger. Failing a choice of law by the parties, the obligations arising from the contract are governed by the following: I appreciate the narrow rpeort of facts upon which the CJEU holds allows one to distinguish. To set a reading intention, click through to any list giulianno, and look for the panel on the left hand side:.

It is sufficient that the seller has arranged the journey by way of an agreement with the transportation company.