Kleihauer-Betke (KB) Test. The KB test is performed to quantitate the number of fetal cells present in the maternal circulation. Once the size of the feto-maternal. Hemoglobin F quantitation by flow cytometry has been found to be simple, reliable, and more precise than the Kleihauer-Betke test,87 In the CAP. The Kleihauer-Betke test is a somewhat crude laboratory method used to screen maternal blood samples for the presence of fetal red blood cells.

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Kleihauer-Betke (KB) Test – , Laboratory Continuing Education

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Persistent fetal hemoglobin in maternal circulation complicating the diagnosis of fetomaternal hemorrhage. So, unless all stillbirths are tested, a large proportion of FMH will remain undetected.

It takes only 0. Review Detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration Mean corpuscular volume Red blood cell distribution width. Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references.

Despite its widespread use, the KB test has significant limitations, including Low sensitivity Poor reproducibility. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. In those with positive tests, follow up testing at a postpartum check should be done to rule out the possibility of betoe false positive.

This dose hetke suppress the immune response to 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Certain hemoglobinopathiesthe most common of which is sickle cell trait, do this. Krywko ; Sara M. Comparison with other more expensive or technologically advanced methods such as flow cytometry has shown that the KB stain, like the more advanced methods, is sensitive in its detection of FMH.


General description A peripheral blood smear is made from the maternal postpartum sample and treated with acid. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. We would hence conclude that the fetus under consideration lost Review [Prevention of fetomaternal rhesus-D allo-immunization.

The result then is used to guide management and education on prognosis. There is some controversy on KB testing ebtke the setting of trauma in pregnancy. None of the trauma scoring systems predicted PTL. For a complete discussion of the justification for testing for FMH and methods of estimating the percentage of fetal blood volume lost, see WiSSPers, volume 1, number 1.

The test is based on the principle that red kleihsuer containing fetal hemoglobin HbF are less susceptible to acid elution than cells containing adult hemoglobin HbA. It was further determined that, when immersed in a citrate buffer pH of beyke.

Kleihauer–Betke test – Wikipedia

In this test, by acid elution the mother’s red klleihauer cells become very pale while fetal cells, which contain a different form of hemoglobin, remain stained. In 71 cases, transplacental hemorrhage was assessed by maternal KB test. PMC ] [ PubMed: Views Read Edit View history. This could be caused by a process in the mother which causes persistent elevation of fetal hemoglobin, e.

Kleihauer–Betke test

Hysterectomy B-Lynch suture Sengstaken—Blakemore tube. Then we would conclude that the total percentage of fetal blood lost is approximately.

However, there are times when the additional dose is necessary due to massive red blood cell FMH and subsequent maternal immune response. During this incubation period, any Rh-positive fetal cells in the maternal sample are sensitized to the anti-Rho D immune globulin and bound.


The indicator cells will be at the center of the rosette, while the fetal RBCs will be clustered around the edges, like petals on a flower. Kleihauer Betke Test – StatPearls. Home Products Most Popular Contact. Affilations 1 Medical University of South Carolina. Interfering Factors In the case of maternal persistence of fetal hemoglobin or other maternal hemoglobinopathies that result in elevated HbF, the KB test will be falsely positive and flow cytometry must be used to quantitate the amount of fetal hemorrhage in maternal circulation.

In the case of massive trauma, the KB test may be utilized primarily, without the preliminary use of the screening Rosette test. Kleihauer-Betke testing accurately predicts the risk of preterm labor after maternal trauma.


This test has been historically only recommended for the Rh-negative pregnant patient with major trauma. Enzyme treated indicator cells are added, only binding to the fetal cells that were present and sensitized, resulting in a process called erythrocyte rosetting, or E-rosetting.

Apt—Downey test Kleihauer—Betke test. This disruption in the placental barrier may occur for many reasons, including intra-uterine fetal demise and trauma. Kleihauer Betke test is utilized to determine if there is fetal blood in maternal circulation, with a threshold of 5 mL.

Potential Diagnosis The Rosette test is a qualitative screening test performed on a maternal blood sample to determine if FMH has occurred between a Rh-positive fetus and a Rh-negative mother and serves oleihauer a useful screening test.